This book by Richard P. Finnegan discusses the shortcomings of exit interviews and employee surveys, but really focuses on the solution: stay interviews. The premise is that direct supervisors have the greatest impact on whether an employee stays with or leaves an organization.
What is a Stay Interview?
It's an annual one-on-one interview between a supervisor and each of his employees, with the aim of determining employee motives for staying or leaving, and how the leader can help them meet their goals. It is not a performance evaluation, and should probably be held 6 months away from any performance evaluation so that they are kept totally separate. There are at least 3 major benefits to stay interviews:
- Immediate guidance: no waiting months for survey results
- Individual needs can be discussed
- Independent solutions can be planned
Why Do Stay Interviews Matter?
When you're conducting an exit interview, the person has already left. They have no vested interested in telling you what they think. When you're conducting an employee survey, the result is average responses and company-wide programs that do little to drive retention. Good supervisory skills matter far more than "feel-good programs" when it comes to engagement and retention. Disengagement and turnover cost real money, and every organization should figure out how much these cost them.
How to Increase Retention
Think about what makes your organization unique, and use that to keep employees. Remember that supervisors have the greatest impact on E&R. Therefore, they - not HR - should be held accountable for specific retention goals. The most important quality in a supervisor is trustworthiness; build this quality in yours. "Narrow the front door", that is, be more selective about who you hire in the first place. Have a clear course of events during a new hire's 1st 90 days, concluding with a stay interview. Supervisors should accept responsibility for company policies ("I/we" not "they"), but should also challenge policies to ensure retention. Workstyle and schedule flexibility are the #1 policy reasons people leave.
The Saratoga Institude found that poor leadership causes over 60% of all staff turnover.
What's That About Trustworthiness?
Trust is the most critical characteristic employees want in their supervisors, followed by fairness, care, and concern. Have managers reflect on trust-breaking experiences in their career and how it changed them. Make them reflect on whether any of their staff view them that way.
Trust is about behavior, not character.
How to Make the Most of Them
Use open-ended questions. What makes you stay? Why would you leave? What are your goals? What does a good day look like? How can I, as your supervisor, help you succeed? The management team can tailor these questions to specific concerns that short, frequent employee surveys reveal.
Take notes, listen, and don't be content with initial responses - probe for the truth. Develop an effective stay plan for each employee. Remember than challenging work is the best way for employees to learn and grow. Have standard form (for data purposes), but be ready for the conversation to develop in unexpected ways.
Your 3 Tools and How to Improve Them
Employee surveys procure engagement data that serves as a benchmark (eg. "On a scale of 1-10 how would you rate internal communication?"). Stay Interviews allow supervisors to dig into the concerns uncovered by employee surveys. Exit surveys confirm the data.
- Short and focused, look for trends
- Report comprehensive data - length of service, performance level, voluntary and involuntary resignations; KPI: Number of leavers and their performance level by manager (you should know the company-wide data, too)
- Ask the "net-promoter" question: "How likely are you to recommend this company as a place to work to your friends and colleagues on a scale of 1-10?" 9-10 is a promoter, 6-8 is passive, 1-6 is detractor. Subtract detractors from promoters to get your score.
- Require managers to meet with their supervisor after every exit interview. Review what can be learned, and possibly withhold approval for new hires until this is done.
- Track improvement. If you've done 1-4 and there's no improvement, stop wasting your time on exit interviews.
- Short and frequent - these are benchmarks, about broad issues, and should be kept to about 10 questions, but regularly
- Do them about 1 month before your Stay Interviews, and use the data to tailor these. Then wait about 6 months before a performance review.
- Ask the "net-promoter" question here, too.
- Be Quality Control for Action Plans - they should be specific, not vague, and actually work toward a better employee
- Hold Managers Accountable for Achieving a Survey Standard
Also, implement Manager Scorecards for perusal by the CEO. They should cover things like:
- manager's survey score vs company score vs standard
- manager's turover vs company turnover vs standard
- turnover by reasons
- turnover by performance level
- turnover by length of service
- net promoter scores for current employees and leaving employees
These things are just as important as revenue and profit per employee, customer satisfaction, etc.